3D modeling is the process of creating a 3D presentation of any surface or object by manipulating polygons, edges, and verticals in a simulated 3D space. 3D modeling can be achieved manually with specialized 3D software that allows the artist to create and deform polygon surfaces, or scan real-world objects into a set of points used to represent the object digitally.3D modeling is used in a wide range, including engineering, entertainment, film, visual effects, game development, and commercial advertising. The most famous example is the application of 3D technology in moving images for the movie Avatar. The film helped transform the 3D industry because many 3D modeling concepts were used. Models can be created manually, algorithmically, or by scanning real-world objects. 3D modeling software is a class of 3D graphics software used to produce 3D models.

Almost all 3D models can be divided into two categories:

  • Solid: These models define the volume of their presentation. Solid models are mostly used in engineering and medical simulations and are often made with constructive solid geometry.
  • Boundary models: These models represent the surface area of an object, not their volume. Almost all visual models used in games and movies are borderline models.

Ways to present the model:

  • Polygon Modeling: Points in 3D space called verticals are connected by line segments to create a polygon grid. Most 3D models today are built from polygon models, because they are flexible and because the computer can render them faster. However, polygons are straight and can only form approximately curved lines from multiple points.
  • Edge modeling: The surface is defined by the edges, which depend on the control points. Edge follows the points. Increasing the weight for a point pulls the edge to that point.

The first use of computer graphics was in the early 1960s in scientific and engineering research. The first commercial modeling program, Syntha Vision, was released in 1969. The popularity of 3D modeling has grown with the application of 3D modeling in film and video games.

An STL file is the most common file type used for 3D printing. STL files can be exported with almost any 3D modeling software.