Before the start of 3D printing, it is necessary to make specific preparations to make sure that the object will be made as we planned. However, this type of printing requires continuous research and learning, so it is impossible to say that the solution for each step is always known. It is always necessary to study the material, the printer, and their characteristics to maintain the quality of printing at the highest possible level.

1) There is no filament delay at the beginning of printing

Problem je veoma čest kod novih korisnika 3D štampača, ali srećom rešiv je. Ako vaš ekstruder ne ispušta filament na početku štampe  potrebno je proveriti neke od stavki:- Ekstruder nije pripremljen pre početka štampe – Mnogi ekstruderi imaju lošu naviku curenja plastike kada su u „praznom hodu“ na visokoj temperaturi. Topla plastika unutar nozle nastoji da se ispušta što dovodi do začepljenja nakon hlađenja ekstrudera. Ako je vaš ekstruder izgubio plastiku usred curenja, sledeći put kad probate da ekstrudirate filament, vrlo je verovatno da će proći nekoliko sekunde da filament izađe iz nozle. Kako bi se ovaj problem rešio, može se uključiti i primena štampe pomoćnog sloja pre početka štampe glavnog objekta. Na taj način, sloj koji se prvo štampa oko glavnog objekta, pomoći će u rešenju problema neispuštanja plastike na početku štampe. Nakon završetka štampe, ovaj pomoćni deo ili prvo sloj oko objekta se lako uklanja.

2) The first layer does not stick to the substrate

  • The first layer of printing must be strongly connected to the substrate so that the rest can be printed correctly. If the first layer is not glued to the platform, it will cause problems later.
  • The printing platform is not leveled – If your printer has an adjustable surface and you have trouble gluing the first layer of the print, the first thing to check is that the print surface is flat and level. If the base is not flat, one part of the base may be too close to the nostril, while the other part is too far. Achieving the perfect first layer requires leveling the printing platform.
  • Nozles start too far from the print base – Once the substrate has been leveled, care must still be taken that the nozzle starts at the correct height relative to the print substrate. Your goal is to locate the extruder at the perfect distance from the printing surface – not too close and not too far. For example, if you enter -0.05mm for the Z-axis in the G-Code offset, the nozzle will start printing 0.05mm closer to the printing platform. Be careful to make only small changes in these settings because each layer of printed objects is usually about 0.2mm thin.
  • The first layer prints too fast – When the first layer is dropped on the printing platform, you want to make sure that the filament adheres adequately to the substrate before starting the next layer. If the printing of the first layer is too fast, the plastic may not have time to bond to the print backing. For this reason, it is recommended to print the first layer at a much lower speed so that the plastic can adequately adhere to the substrate. For example, if you set the print speed of the first layer to 50%, it means that the first layer will print 50% slower compared to other parts of that object.
  • Temperature or cooling settings – Plastic tends to collect by cooling from very hot to cold temperatures. For example, imagine a 100mm wide part that prints with ABS plastic. If the extruder prints the plastic at 230 degrees, but is deposited on a cold printing platform, the plastic will most likely cool down quickly after leaving the hot nozzle. Some printers include cooling fans that speed up the cooling process when used. If this ABS part cools to room temperature at 30 degrees, a 100mm wide object will shrink by almost 1.5mm. Many printers that print with high-temperature materials include a heated substrate to aid. If a heated print pad maintains a temperature of 110 degrees throughout the print, it will also keep the first layer warm so that it does not shrink. If the printer has a cooling fan, it must be turned off for the first few layers to prevent the original layers from cooling too quickly. If you use ABS plastic, the fan usually shuts off during the entire press.

-Printing platform surface – Different plastics tend to adhere to different materials. For this reason, many printers include select print media that is optimized for their materials. If your printers do not include special print media, then you can use some of the things from everyday use. Many users have a good experience applying glue or hair spray to a print pad before starting to print with ABS or PLA.

3) There is not enough discharge of plastic from the extruder

When setting up the printing software, the amount of plastic used by the 3D printer must also be determined. However, as 3D printers do not give feedback on how much plastic the nozzle actually releases, it is possible that less plastic comes out of the nostril than the software expects. If this happens, skips may be noticed during layer printing. The easiest way to test if your printer uses enough plastic is to print 20mm high cubes.

  • Incorrect filament diameter – The first thing to check is that the software knows the diameter of the filament used. Make sure the settings match the filament you ordered. You can also measure the filament manually, and the most common values ​​for the diameter of the filaments are 1.75mm and 2.85mm.
  • Increase the amount of extruded plastic – If the diameter of the filament is correct, but there are still problems, then the amount of extruded plastic must be corrected. For example, if the amount of extrusion was previously set to 1.0 and now changed to 1.05, it means that 5% more plastic will be extruded than before. It is common for the amount of extrusion when printing from PLA to be set to 0.9, while the value for ABS is 1.0.

4) Extruding too much plastic

The software continually works with your printer to make sure the nozzle extrudes the correct amount of plastic. This precision extrusion is an important factor in achieving good print quality. However, many printers do not have a way to monitor how much plastic is extruded. If the extrusion settings are not set properly, the printer may eject more plastic than the software expects. This problem can be solved by reducing the amount of extruded plastic in the settings and to not destroy the dimensions of the object to be printed.